A new approach to treat tissue destruction in periodontitis with chemically modified dextran polymers
Q Escartin, C Lallam-Laroye, B Baroukh, F O Morvan, J P Caruelle, G Godeau, D Barritault, J L Saffar
Periodontitis are diseases of the supportive tissues of the teeth provoked by bacteria and characterized by gingival inflammation and bone destruction. We have developed a new strategy to repair tissues by administrating agents (RGTA) that mimic heparan sulfates by protecting selectively some of the growth factors naturally present within the injured tissue and interfering with inflammation. After periodontitis induction in hamsters, the animals were left untreated or received weekly i.m. injections of RGTA1507 at a dose of 100 microg/kg, 400 microg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg, or 15 mg/kg for 4 wk. RGTA treatment significantly reduced gingival tissue inflammation, thickened the pocket epithelium by increasing cell proliferation, and enhanced collagen accumulation in the gingiva. A marked reduction in bone loss was observed, resulting from depression of osteoclasia and robust stimulation of bone formation at the dose of 1.5 mg/kg. RGTA treatment for 8 wk at this dose reversed macroscopic bone loss, sharply contrasting with the extensive bone destruction in the untreated animals. RGTA treatment decreased gelatinase A (MMP-2) and B (MMP-9) pro-forms in gingival tissues. Our data indicate that a 4 wk treatment dose-dependently attenuated gingival and bone manifestations of the disease, whereas a longer treatment restored alveolar bone close to controls. By modulating and coordinating host responses, RGTA has unique therapeutic properties and is a promising candidate for the treatment of human periodontitis.